Electronic Scientific Journal
Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics 
         of materials and structures


advanced search

IssuesAbout the JournalAuthorContactsNewsRegistration

All Issues

All Issues
2024 Issue 2
2024 Issue 1
2023 Issue 6
2023 Issue 5
2023 Issue 4
2023 Issue 3
2023 Issue 2
2023 Issue 1
2022 Issue 6
2022 Issue 5
2022 Issue 4
2022 Issue 3
2022 Issue 2
2022 Issue 1
2021 Issue 6
2021 Issue 5
2021 Issue 4
2021 Issue 3
2021 Issue 2
2021 Issue 1
2020 Issue 6
2020 Issue 5
2020 Issue 4
2020 Issue 3
2020 Issue 2
2020 Issue 1
2019 Issue 6
2019 Issue 5
2019 Issue 4
2019 Issue 3
2019 Issue 2
2019 Issue 1
2018 Issue 6
2018 Issue 5
2018 Issue 4
2018 Issue 3
2018 Issue 2
2018 Issue 1
2017 Issue 6
2017 Issue 5
2017 Issue 4
2017 Issue 3
2017 Issue 2
2017 Issue 1
2016 Issue 6
2016 Issue 5
2016 Issue 4
2016 Issue 3
2016 Issue 2
2016 Issue 1
2015 Issue 6
2015 Issue 5
2015 Issue 4
2015 Issue 3
2015 Issue 2
2015 Issue 1






A. V. Makarov, E. S. Gorkunov, L. Kh. Kogan, I. Yu. Malygina, A. L. Osintseva


DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2015.6.090-103

Features of eddy-current testing to control the structure, hardness and the abrasive wear resistance of high-strength cast iron (3.6 С, 2.15 Si, 1.4 Mn, 0.07 S, 0.06 P, base – Fe, mass. %) subjected to hardening using continuous laser radiation are investigated. The distribution of hardness, retained austenite content, wear rate and indicated eddy-current values through hardened layer depth is analyzed. The changes in the reading of the eddy-current instrument depend mainly on changes in retained austenite content. The influence of tempering in the interval from 100 °C to 600 °C on characteristics of laser-hardened layer is investigated. The possibility of eddy-current testing of the abrasive wear resistance of laser-hardened high-strength cast iron in the interval from 100 °C to 600 °C is established.

Keywords: laser treatment, tempering, hardened layer thickness, structure, hardness, abrasive wear, eddy-current testing


  1. Vengrinovich V.L., Astapchik S.A., Babushkin V.B., Velichko O.A., Avramchenko P.F. Special Features of Nondestructive Inspection of the Structure of Laser Hardened Zones. Physics and chemistry of materials treatment, 1984, vol. 18, iss. 6, pp. 565−568.
  2. Vengrinovich V.L., Yakunin V.P., Legotin S.D., Busko V.N. Testing the parameters of the laser-hardened layers of ferromagnetic materials by the Barkhausen effect method. Defektoskopiya, 1986, no 2, pp. 87−89. (In Russian).
  3. Malyshev V.S., Mashkovich S.B., Lomaev G.V., Goruchkin A.I., Kutanov Yu.I. Inspection of Pulsed Laser Hardening of 30khra Steel by the Barkhausen Effect Method. The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 1986, vol. 22, iss. 12, pp. 860−863.
  4. Malko I.I., Zatsepin N.N., Maksimkov V.E. Eddy-current testing of laser-hardened layers on products made of steels Kh12M, 45, U10 and ShKh15. Defektoskopiya, 1989, no 1, pp. 95−96. (In Russian).
  5. Morgner W., Reuter M. Prüfung lasergehärteter Oberflächen mit dem Wirtbelstromverfahren. Neue Hütte, 1989, vol. 34, iss. 6, pp. 213−214.
  6. Schneider D., Brenner B. Zerstörungsfreie Bestimmung der Einhärtungstiefe des lasergehärteten Stahls X20Cr13 mit Ultraschall-Oberflächenwellen. Neue Hütte, 1989, vol. 34, iss. 10, pp. 374−378.
  7. Gorkunov E.S., Somova V.M., Makarov A.V., Kogan L.Kh., Korshunov L.G. Magnetic and electromagnetic methods for evaluating the wear resistance of steel products. Defektoskopiya, 1989, no 1, pp. 95−96. (In Russian).
  8. Makarov A.V., Gorkunov E.S., Kogan L.Kh., Kolobylin Yu.M., Korshunov L.G., Osintseva A.L. Features of electromagnetic methods for evaluating the wear resistance of medium-carbon structural steel subjected to laser or bulk hardening and tempering. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2006, vol.42, iss. 7, pp. 443−451. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830906070035.
  9. Kuznetsov A.I., Rodionova S.S., Gorkunov E.S., Pasechnik A.L., Skvortsova E.V. Testing of the graphite shape and the metal base structure in cast-iron castings for various applications. Defektoskopiya, 1996, no 9, pp. 3−15. (In Russian).
  10. Morozova V.M., Nichipuruk A.P., Gavrilova L.D., Somova V. M. Temperature dependences of the coercive force of gray and white iron. Defektoskopiya, 1993, iss. 12, pp. 23−24.
  11. Gorkunov E.S., Kharlamov V.V., Kogan L.Kh., Zadvorkin S.M. Evaluating the wear in steel-steel and iron-iron friction pairs by the eddy-current method. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2005, vol. 41, iss. 4, pp. 218−223. DOI: 10.1007/s11181-005-0153-2.
  12. Grigoryants A. G., Safonov A. N. Metody poverkhnostnoi lasernoi obrabotki [Methods of Surface Laser Processing]. M., Vyssh. Shk. Publ., 1987, 191 p. (In Russian).
  13. Mordike B.L., Bergmann H.W. Laser melting and surface alloying. Rapidly Solidified Metastable Materials: Proceedings of Symposium, Boston, N.Y., 1984, p. 45–64.
  14. Makarov A.V., Malygina I.Yu., Osintseva A.L. The effect of laser processing on the structure, wear resistance and fatigue properties of high-strength cast iron. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov, 2006, no 4, pp. 46−55. (In Russian).
  15. Makarov A.V., Korshunov L.G., Osintseva A.L. The effect of tempering and frictional heating on the wear resistance of the laser-hardened U8 steel. Trenie i iznos, 1991, vol. 12, no 5, pp. 870−878. (In Russian).
  16. Gorkunov E.S., Kogan L.Kh., Baraz E.M., Korolev A.L. Cementation quality inspection in 12Kh2N4A steel articles by electromagnetic methods. Defektoskopiya, 1993, iss.12, pp. 3−12.
  17. Mayorov V.S., Mayorov S.V. Solid laser hardening of iron parts. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2009, vol. 51, iss. 3−4, pp. 106−108. DOI: 10.1007/s11041-009-9125-9.
  18. Burlachenko O.V., Tikhvinskaya А.Yu., Zelensky А.А. Hardening of high-strength cast iron by a YAG:Nd-laser beam. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov, 2009, no 3, pp. 55−57. (In Russian).
  19. Minakov V.N., Bloshanevich А.М., Rudyk N.D., Puchkova V.Yu., Khomenko G.E. The effect of laser processing on the properties of VCh40 cast iron. Uprochnyayushchiye tekhnologii i pokrytiya, 2011, no. 10, pp. 12−14. (In Russian).
  20. Safonov A.N. Structure and properties of the surface of iron-carbon alloys melted by laser radiation. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2009, vol. 41, iss. 1, pp. 7−11. DOI: 10.1007/BF02466262.
  21. Yur’yev A.B., Chinokalov V.Ya., Efimov O.Yu., Simakov V.P., Shitik E.V. Effect of plasma surface treatment on the structure and hardness of spherulitic iron. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2006, vol. 48, iss. 5−6, pp. 264−267. DOI: 10.1007/s11041-006-0082-2.
  22. Safonov E.N. Structure and hardness of cast iron after surface hardening. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2005, vol. 47, no 9−10, pp. 434–439. DOI: 10.1007/s11041-006-0007-0.
  23. Zhuravlev V.I., Safonov E.N., Starikov V.V., Farber V.M., CheremnykhV.G., Potemkina T.G. Surface hardening of ductile cast iron by a transferred electric arc. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Chernaya metallurgiya, 1996, no. 10, pp. 48−49. (In Russian).
  24. Fernandez-Vicente А, Pellizzari M., Arias J.L. Feasibility of laser surface treatment of pearlitic and bainitic ductile irons for hot rolls. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2012, vol. 212, iss. 5, pp. 989–1002. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.11.013.
  25. Slatter T., Taylor H., Lewis R., King P. The influence of laser hardening on wear in the valve and valve seat contact. Wear, 2009, vol. 267, iss. 5–8, pp. 797–806. DOI: 10.1016/j.wear.2009.01.040.
  26. Dyakin V.V., Sandovsky V.А. Teoriya i raschet nacladnykh vikhretokovykh preobrazovatelei [Theory and Calculation of Attached Eddy-Current Transducers]. M., Nauka Publ., 1981, 136 p. (In Russian).
  27. Makarov A.V., Gorkunov E.S., Kogan L.Kh., Kolobylin Yu.M., Osintseva A.L. Eddy-current and coercive-force testing of abrasion-resistant ball bearing steel ШХ15 subjected to laser and bulk thermal processing. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2006, vol. 42, iss. 10, pp. 639−647. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830906100019.
  28. Makarov A.V., Gorkunov E.S., Kolobylin Yu.M., Kogan L.Kh., Korshunov L.G., Malygina I.Yu., Osintseva A.L. Eddy-current testing of the durability of laser-hardend carburized chromonickel steel and quality of laser hardening of drill bits. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2009, vol. 45, iss.10, pp. 698−710. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830909100052.
  29. Dorofeev A.L. Induktsionnaya strukturoskopiya [Induction Structuroscopy]. M., Energiya Publ., 1973. 177 p. (In Russian).
  30. Belous M.V., Cherepnin V.T., Vasiliev М.А. Prevrashcheniya pri otpuske stali [Trasformations in Steel under Tempering]. M., Metallurgiya Publ., 1973, 232 p. (In Russian).
  31. Makarov A.V., Kogan L.Kh., Gorkunov E.S., Korshunov L.G., Atangulova L.V. An estimate of the abrasive wear resistance of low-alloy instrument steels by magnetic and electromagnetic methods. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 1998, vol. 34, iss. 5, pp. 305−312.
  32. Makarov A.V., Kogan L.Kh., Gorkunov E.S., , Kolobylin Yu.M. Eddy current testing of wear-resistance of surface-carbonized chromium-nickel 20KhN3A steel grade. Defektoskopiya, 2001, iss. 2, pp. 67−78.
  33. Gorkunov E.S., Kogan L.Kh., Morozova V.M., Baraz E.М. Eddy current testing to thermal treatment of ″thin sheet″ articles made of carbon steel with deviation of carbon percentage. Defektoskopiya, 1993, iss. 3, pp. 62−66.
  34. Makarov A.V., Korshunov L.G., Kogan L.Kh., Gorkunov E.S., Solodova I.L., Osintseva A.L. Abrasive wear resistance of carbon and low-alloy tool steels and its evaluation by the nondestructive methods. Treniye i iznos, 1998, vol. 19, no 5, pp. 633−641. (In Russian).
  35. Gorkunov E.S., Makarov A.V., Kogan L.Kh. Magnetic and electromagnetic methods for testing the wear resistance of steel products. Kontrol. Diagnostika, 2000, no. 11, pp. 13−15. (In Russian).


Article reference

Eddy-Current Testing of the Structure, Hardness and Abrasive Wear Resistance of Laser-Hardened and Subsequently Tempered High-Strength Cast Iron / A. V. Makarov, E. S. Gorkunov, L. Kh. Kogan, I. Yu. Malygina, A. L. Osintseva // Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures. - 2015. - Iss. 6. - P. 90-103. -
DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2015.6.090-103. -
URL: http://eng.dream-journal.org/issues/content/article_66.html
(accessed: 06/22/2024).


impact factor
RSCI 0.42


MRDMS 2024
Google Scholar



Founder:  Institute of Engineering Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch)
Chief Editor:  S.V. Smirnov
When citing, it is obligatory that you refer to the Journal. Reproduction in electronic or other periodicals without permission of the Editorial Board is prohibited. The materials published in the Journal may be used only for non-profit purposes.
Home E-mail 0+

ISSN 2410-9908 Registration SMI Эл № ФС77-57355 dated March 24, 2014 © IMACH of RAS (UB) 2014-2024, www.imach.uran.ru