Electronic Scientific Journal
Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics 
         of materials and structures


advanced search

IssuesAbout the JournalAuthorContactsNewsRegistration

All Issues

All Issues
2024 Issue 2
2024 Issue 1
2023 Issue 6
2023 Issue 5
2023 Issue 4
2023 Issue 3
2023 Issue 2
2023 Issue 1
2022 Issue 6
2022 Issue 5
2022 Issue 4
2022 Issue 3
2022 Issue 2
2022 Issue 1
2021 Issue 6
2021 Issue 5
2021 Issue 4
2021 Issue 3
2021 Issue 2
2021 Issue 1
2020 Issue 6
2020 Issue 5
2020 Issue 4
2020 Issue 3
2020 Issue 2
2020 Issue 1
2019 Issue 6
2019 Issue 5
2019 Issue 4
2019 Issue 3
2019 Issue 2
2019 Issue 1
2018 Issue 6
2018 Issue 5
2018 Issue 4
2018 Issue 3
2018 Issue 2
2018 Issue 1
2017 Issue 6
2017 Issue 5
2017 Issue 4
2017 Issue 3
2017 Issue 2
2017 Issue 1
2016 Issue 6
2016 Issue 5
2016 Issue 4
2016 Issue 3
2016 Issue 2
2016 Issue 1
2015 Issue 6
2015 Issue 5
2015 Issue 4
2015 Issue 3
2015 Issue 2
2015 Issue 1






E. A. Putilova, L. S. Goruleva, S. M. Zadvorkin


DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2022.5.040-049

The friction treatment of corrosion-resistant metastable steels makes it possible to improve the strength properties and operational characteristics of such materials. This is mainly due to the formation of strain-induced martensite, a stronger ferromagnetic phase, in the surface layer. Besides, modification of the phase composition changes the magnetic state of the material. The paper presents the results of the effect of varying the normal load of the indenter during surface friction treatment on the change in the phase composition and the magnetic characteristics of the AISI 321 steel. The amount of the formed ferromagnetic phase and hardness are related to the normal load of the indenter. It is shown that magnetization can be used as an informative parameter for diagnosing the formation of strain-induced martensite during the friction treatment of the AISI 321 steel.

Acknowledgments: The work was performed under state assignment no. AAAA-A18-118020790148-1. The equipment of the Plastometriya shared research facilities.

Keywords: friction treatment, metastable corrosion-resistant austenitic steel, strain-induced martensite, specific magnetization, magnetic hysteresis loops


  1. Gol'dshtejn M.I., Grachev S.V., Veksler Yu.G. Spetsial'nye stali [Special steels]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1985, 408 p. (In Russian).
  2. Lo K.H., Shek C.H., Lai J. Recent developments in stainless steels. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 2009, vol. 65, No. 4, pp. 39–104. DOI: 10.1016/J.MSER.2009.03.001.
  3. Eskandari M.A., Kermanpur A., Najafizadeh A. Formation of nanocrystalline structure in 301 stainless steel produced by martensite treatment. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2009, vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 2241–2249. DOI: 10.1007/S11661-009-9916-Z.
  4. Arzamasov B.N., Sidorin I.I., Kosolapov G.F., Makarova V.I., Mukhin G.G., Ryzhov N.M., Silaeva V.I., and Ul’yanova N.V. Materialovedenie: uchebnik dlya vysshikh tekhnicheskikh uchebnykh zavedenii [Materials Science: Handbook for Technological Colleges]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986. (In Russian).
  5. Pradhan K.K., Matawale C.R., Murarka S. Analysis of erosion-corrosion resistance and various application in domestic and industrial field of stainless steel grade. International Journal of Research (IJR), 2015, vol. 2, iss. 4, pp. 807–811.
  6. Novikov I.I. Teoriya termicheskoj obrabotki metallov, 2-e izd. [Theory of heat treatment of metals, 2nd ed.]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1974. 400 p. (In Russian).
  7. Gulyaev A.P. Materials Science: A Textbook for Institutes of Higher Education, 6th ed., Metallurgiya, Moscow, 1986. (In Russian).
  8. Wu Y., Guelorget B., Sun Z., Déturche R., Retraint D. Characterization of gradient properties generated by SMAT for a biomedical grade 316L stainless steel. Materials Characterization, 2019, vol. 155, 109788. DOI: 10.1016/j.matchar.2019.109788.
  9. Makarov A.V., Savray R.A., Skorynina P.A., Volkova E.G. Development of Methods for Steel Surface Deformation Nanostructuring. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2020, vol. 62, pp. 61–69. DOI: 10.1007/s11041-020-00529-w.
  10. Torres M.A.S, Voorwald H.J.C. An evaluation of shot peening, residual stress and stress relaxation on the fatigue life of AISI 4340 steel. International Journal of Fatigue, 2002, vol. 24, iss. 8, pp. 877–886. DOI: 10.1016/S0142-1123(01)00205-5.
  11. De los Rios E.R., Walley A., Milan M.T., Hammersley G. Fatigue crack initiation and propagation on shot-peened surfaces in A316 stainless steel. International Journal of Fatigue, 1995, vol. 17, iss 7, pp. 493–499. DOI: 10.1016/0142-1123(95)00044-T.
  12. Kermouche G., Pacquaut G., Langlade C., Bergheau J. Investigation of mechanically attrited structures induced by repeated impacts on an AISI1045 steel. Comptes Rendus Mécanique, 2011, vol. 339, iss 7–8, pp. 552–562. DOI: 10.1016/J.CRME.2011.05.012.
  13. Lu K., Lu J. Nanostructured surface layer on metallic materials induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2004, vol. 375–377, pp. 38–45. DOI: 10.1016/J.MSEA.2003.10.261.
  14. Makarov A.V. Nanostructuring Friction Treatment of Carbon and Low-Alloyed Steels. In: Perspektivnye materialy: Uchebnoe posobie [Perspective Materials, vol. 4: A Tutorial]. Merson, D.L., ed., Tolyatti, TGU Publ., 2011, pp. 123–207. (In Russian).
  15. Savrai R.A., Osintseva A.L. Effect of hardened surface layer obtained by frictional treatment on the contact endurance of the AISI 321 stainless steel under contact gigacycle fatigue tests. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2021, vol. 802, 140679. DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2020.140679.
  16. Savrai R.A., Kolobylin, Y.M. & Volkova E.G. Micromechanical Characteristics of the Surface Layer of Metastable Austenitic Steel after Frictional Treatment. Phys. Metals Metallogr, 2021, vol. 122, No. 8, pp. 800–806. DOI: 10.1134/S0031918X21080123.
  17. Savrai R.A., Makarov A.V., Malygina I.Yu., Rogovaya S.A., Osintseva A.L. Improving the Strength of the AISI 321 Austenitic Stainless Steel by Frictional Treatment. Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures, 2017, iss.5. Available at: http://dream-journal.org/DREAM_Issue_5_2017_Savrai_R.A._et_al._043_062.pdf (accessed 21.04.2022). DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2017.5.043-062.
  18. Rusakov A.A. Rentgenografiya metallov [Radiography of metals]. Moscow, Atomizdat Publ., 1977, 480 p. (In Russian).
  19. Dorofeev A.L. Vikhrevye toki [Eddy currents]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1977, 72 p. (In Russian).
  20. Gorkunov É.S., Zadvorkin S.M., Mitropolskaya S.Yu., Vichuzhanin D.I., Solov’ev K.E. Change in magnetic properties of metastable austenitic steel due to elastoplastic deformation. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2009, vol. 51, pp. 423–428. DOI:10.1007/S11041-010-9185-X.
  21. Filippov M.A., Litvinov V.S., Nemirovskij Yu. R. Stali s metastabil'nym austenitom [Steels with metastable austenite]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1988, 255 p. (In Russian).



Article reference

Putilova E. A., Goruleva L. S., Zadvorkin S. M. Effect of Frictional Treatment of the Aisi 321 Steel on the Change of Its Hardness and Magnetic Characteristics // Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures. - 2022. - Iss. 5. - P. 40-49. -
DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2022.5.040-049. -
URL: http://eng.dream-journal.org/issues/content/article_364.html
(accessed: 06/22/2024).


impact factor
RSCI 0.42


MRDMS 2024
Google Scholar



Founder:  Institute of Engineering Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch)
Chief Editor:  S.V. Smirnov
When citing, it is obligatory that you refer to the Journal. Reproduction in electronic or other periodicals without permission of the Editorial Board is prohibited. The materials published in the Journal may be used only for non-profit purposes.
Home E-mail 0+

ISSN 2410-9908 Registration SMI Эл № ФС77-57355 dated March 24, 2014 © IMACH of RAS (UB) 2014-2024, www.imach.uran.ru