Electronic Scientific Journal
Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics 
         of materials and structures


advanced search

IssuesAbout the JournalAuthorContactsNewsRegistration

All Issues

All Issues
2024 Issue 2
2024 Issue 1
2023 Issue 6
2023 Issue 5
2023 Issue 4
2023 Issue 3
2023 Issue 2
2023 Issue 1
2022 Issue 6
2022 Issue 5
2022 Issue 4
2022 Issue 3
2022 Issue 2
2022 Issue 1
2021 Issue 6
2021 Issue 5
2021 Issue 4
2021 Issue 3
2021 Issue 2
2021 Issue 1
2020 Issue 6
2020 Issue 5
2020 Issue 4
2020 Issue 3
2020 Issue 2
2020 Issue 1
2019 Issue 6
2019 Issue 5
2019 Issue 4
2019 Issue 3
2019 Issue 2
2019 Issue 1
2018 Issue 6
2018 Issue 5
2018 Issue 4
2018 Issue 3
2018 Issue 2
2018 Issue 1
2017 Issue 6
2017 Issue 5
2017 Issue 4
2017 Issue 3
2017 Issue 2
2017 Issue 1
2016 Issue 6
2016 Issue 5
2016 Issue 4
2016 Issue 3
2016 Issue 2
2016 Issue 1
2015 Issue 6
2015 Issue 5
2015 Issue 4
2015 Issue 3
2015 Issue 2
2015 Issue 1






V. G. Kuleev


DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2021.6.068-079

It is theoretically shown that in cases where the process of irreversible magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic steels is determined by displacements of only 180° domain boundaries, the dependences of reversible permeability on the switching field in low-carbon steels when a direct current is passed along a rod sample should have two maxima instead of the usual one that occurs in the absence of this current. The distances between the maxima of these peaks linearly depend on the value of the constant component of the current and, consequently, on the constant circular magnetic field caused by it, perpendicular to the switching field.

This phenomenon should occur both for undeformed steel samples in the state after annealing and for samples after plastic stretching. In the latter case, elastic tensile stresses of such magnitude should act to compensate for internal residual compressive stresses. The fields of both peaks of magnetic permeability in these two cases are close to each other.

Acknowledgments: The work was performed under the state assignment of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia (theme Diagnostics, no. AAAA-A18-118020690196-3).

Keywords: annealed low-carbon steel, deformation, residual compressive stresses, elastic tensile stresses, EMF, circular constant and alternating magnetic fields, reversible magnetic permeability: magnetization reversal along the major hysteresis loop


  1. Wolfart X. Vliyanie tsiklicheskikh napryazheniy [Influence of residual stresses]. In: Behavior of steels under cyclic loads, ed. by W. M. Dal, Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1983, pp. 243–279. (In Russian).
  2. Mishakin V.V., Mitenkov F.M., Danilova N.V., Klyushnikov V.A. The use of acoustic method to estimate the damage of 321 steel under fatigue failure. Kontrol. Diagnostika, 2012, No. 7, pp. 9–13. (In Russian).
  3. Nichipuruk A.P., Stashkov A.N., Kostin V.N., Korkh M.K. Possibilities of magnetic inspection of plastic deformations preceding failures of low-carbon steels constructions. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2009, vol. 45, No. 9, pp. 616–622. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830909090034.
  4. Nichipuruk A.P., Rozenfeld E.V., Ogneva M.S., Stashkov A.N., Korolev A.V. An experimental method for evaluating the critical fields of moving domain boundaries in plastically tension-deformed low-carbon wires. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2014, vol. 50, No. 10, pp. 566–573. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830914100088.
  5. Kuleev V.G., Stashkov A.N., Tsarkova T.P., and Nichipuruk A.P. Experimental determination of critical fields of 90-degree domain wall displacement in plastically deformed low-carbon steels. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2018, vol. 54, No. 10, pp. 711–716. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830918100078.
  6. Kuleev V.G., Degtyarev M.V., Stashkov A.N., and Nichipuruk A.P. On the origin of peaks of differential magnetic permeability in low-carbon steels after plastic deformation. The Physics of Metals and Metallography, 2019, vol. 120, No. 2, pp. 128–132. DOI: 10.1134/S0031918X19020108.
  7. Stashkov A.N., Kuleev V.G., Nichipuruk A.P. Studying field dependence of reversible magnetic permeability in plastically deformed low-carbon steels. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2018, vol. 54, No. 12, pp. 855–860. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830918120094.
  8. Kuleev V.G., Stashkov A.N., Nichipuruk A.P. Reasons for the difference of the fields of the peaks of the reversible and differential magnetic permeability in deformed low-carbon steels. The Physics of Metals and Metallography, 2019, vol. 120, No. 7, pp. 632–638. DOI: 10.1134/S0031918X19070044.
  9. Stashkov A.N., Nichipuruk A.P., Ogneva M.S., Kuleev V.G. The effect of plastic strain and the orthogonal bias field on the processes of magnetization of low-carbon steel. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2012, vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 686–692. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830912120066.
  10. Govorkov W.A., Kupalyan S.D. Teoriya elektromagnitnogo polya v uprazhneniyakh i zadachakh [Electromagnetic field theory in exercises and tasks]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1970, 302 p. (In Russian).
  11. Gleiter G., Chalmers B. Bolsheuglovye granitsy zeren [High angle grain boundaries]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1985, 375 p. (In Russian).
  12. Kuleev V.G., Tsar’kova T.P., Sazhina E.Y. Effect of transitions of domain boundaries in plastically deformed steels on their residual magnetization. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2016, vol. 52, No. 12, pp. 745–752. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830916120123.
  13. Polivanov K.M. Teoreticheskie osnovy elektrotekhniki [Theoretical Foundations of Electrical Engineering]. Moscow, Energiya Publ, 1969, 351 p. (In Russian).
  14. Bosort P. Ferromagnetizm [Ferromagnetism]. Moscow, Izd-vo inostr. lit. Publ., 1956, 784 p. (In Russian).


Article reference

Kuleev V. G. The Effect of Direct Current in a Steel Rod on the Switching Field Dependence of Magnetic Permeability // Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures. - 2021. - Iss. 6. - P. 68-79. -
DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2021.6.068-079. -
URL: http://eng.dream-journal.org/issues/content/article_353.html
(accessed: 06/22/2024).


impact factor
RSCI 0.42


MRDMS 2024
Google Scholar



Founder:  Institute of Engineering Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch)
Chief Editor:  S.V. Smirnov
When citing, it is obligatory that you refer to the Journal. Reproduction in electronic or other periodicals without permission of the Editorial Board is prohibited. The materials published in the Journal may be used only for non-profit purposes.
Home E-mail 0+

ISSN 2410-9908 Registration SMI Эл № ФС77-57355 dated March 24, 2014 © IMACH of RAS (UB) 2014-2024, www.imach.uran.ru