Electronic Scientific Journal
Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics 
         of materials and structures


advanced search

IssuesAbout the JournalAuthorContactsNewsRegistration

2017 Issue 2

2023 Issue 2
2023 Issue 1
2022 Issue 6
2022 Issue 5
2022 Issue 4
2022 Issue 3
2022 Issue 2
2022 Issue 1
2021 Issue 6
2021 Issue 5
2021 Issue 4
2021 Issue 3
2021 Issue 2
2021 Issue 1
2020 Issue 6
2020 Issue 5
2020 Issue 4
2020 Issue 3
2020 Issue 2
2020 Issue 1
2019 Issue 6
2019 Issue 5
2019 Issue 4
2019 Issue 3
2019 Issue 2
2019 Issue 1
2018 Issue 6
2018 Issue 5
2018 Issue 4
2018 Issue 3
2018 Issue 2
2018 Issue 1
2017 Issue 6
2017 Issue 5
2017 Issue 4
2017 Issue 3
2017 Issue 2
2017 Issue 1
2016 Issue 6
2016 Issue 5
2016 Issue 4
2016 Issue 3
2016 Issue 2
2016 Issue 1
2015 Issue 6
2015 Issue 5
2015 Issue 4
2015 Issue 3
2015 Issue 2
2015 Issue 1






E. S. Gorkunov


DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2017.2.006-027

Magnetic hysteresis loop distortion occurring during the magnetization reversal of multilayer ferromagnets can be used to evaluate the structural changes and phase transformations in composite product layers with different properties. For practical application, it is proposed either to record the differential magnetic permeability of each layer or to measure the electromotive force in the coil encompassing a product under magnetization reversal by linear alternating current.

Keywords: composite material, surface hardening, structure, phase, hysteresis loop, differential magnetic permeability, field of differential magnetic permeability, coercive force


  1. Potapov I.N., Lebedev V.N., Kobelev A.G., Kuznetsov E.V., Bykov A.A., Kluchnikov R.M. Sloistye metallicheskie kompositsii [Laminated Metal Composites]. M., Metallurgiya Publ., 1986, 216 p. (In Russian).
  2. Lakhtin Yu.M., Leontieva V.P. Materialovedenie [Material Science]. M., Mashinostroenie Publ., 1990, 528 p. (In Russian).
  3. Gorkunov E.S., Lapidus B.M., Zagainov A.V., Voronov S.A., Bushmeleva G. Y. Application of differential magnetic permeability in the quality control of surface hardening. Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing–USSR, 1988, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 441–446.
  4. Gorkunov E.S., Lapidus B.M. Magnetic properties of double-layer ferromagnets as applied to quality control of surface-hardened products. In: Strukturno-fazovye prevrashcheniya v metallakh: problemy prochnosti i plastichnosti [Structural-Phase Transitions in Metals: Strength and Plasticity Problems]. Sverdlovsk, UNTs AN SSSR Publ., 1987, pp. 103-110. (In Russian).
  5. Gorkunov E.S Magnetic Methods and Instruments for the Quality-Control of the CaseHardening of Ferromagnetic Steel Objects – (Review). Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing–USSR, 1991, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–18.
  6. Gorkunov E.S., Lapidus B.M., Zagainov A.B. A method for quality control of multilayer ferromagnetic products. Avtorskoe svidetelstvo no. 1252718 [RF Patent], bul. izobr. no. 31, 1986, p. 182. (In Russian).
  7. Shcherbinin V.E., Gorkunov E.S. Magnitnyi control kachestva metallov [Magnetic Quality Control of Metals]. Ekaterinburg, UrO RAN, 1996, 264 p. ISBN 5-7691-0655-7. (In Russian).
  8. Dekhtyar V.M., Gorbunova A.M., Baldina L.M., Kasatkina G.M. Magnetic Determination of the Depth of a Hardened Layer. Zavodskaya laboratoriya, 1946, vol. 12, no. 9–10, pp. 808–816. (In Russian).
  9. Dekhtyar V.M. On the coercive force of a two-layer cylinder. ZhETF, 1946, iss. 10, pp. 2–7. (In Russian).
  10. Mikheev M.N., Gorkunov E.S. Magnitnye metody strukturnogo analiza [Magnetic Methods for Structural Analysis and Nondestructive Testing]. М., Nauka Publ., 1993. 252 p.
  11. Kifer I.I., Semenovskaya I.B., Fomin I.N. On the relation between differential permeability and coercive force. Zavodskaya laboratoriya, 1969, no. 10, pp. 1191–1193. (In Russian).
  12. Brinksmeier K., Scheider E., Theiner W.A., Tönsholff H.K. Non-destructive testing for evaluating integrity. Annals of the CIRP, 1984, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 489–509.
  13. Gorkunov E.S., Mitropolskaya S.Yu., Groznaya E.M., Mushnikov A.N., Osintseva A.L., Tueva E.A. Effect of Elasto-Plastic Loading on the Magnetic Characteristics of Steel 20 Hardened with Gas Case-Hardening. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2011, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 221–231. DOI: 10.1134/S106183091104005X.
  14. Ryzhov N.M., Fakhurtdinov R.S., Smirnov A.E. Cyclic Strength of Steel 16kh3nvfbm-Sh (Vks-5) after Vacuum Carburizing. Metal Science and Heat Treatment, 2010, vol. 52, nos. 1–2, pp. 61–66. DOI: 10.1007/s11041-010-9230-9.
  15. Borisenok G.V., Vasiliev L.A., Voroshnin L.G. Khimiko-termicheskaya obrabotka metallov i splavov [Chemical and Heat Treatment of Metals and Alloys]. М., Metallurgiya Publ., 1981, pp. 424. (In Russian).
  16. Gorkunov E.S., Mitropol’skaya S.Yu., Zadvorkin S.M., Osintseva A.L., Vichuzhanin D.I. Effect of Laser Surface Hardening on Magnetic Characteristics of a Carbon Steel under Loading. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2008, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 560–565. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830908080081.
  17. Gorkunov E.S., Mitropolskaya S.Yu., Osintseva A.L., Vichuzhanin D.I. Magnetic investigation of strains and stresses in surface-hardened materials. Physical Mesomechanics, 2009, vol. 12, iss. 3–4, pp. 190–198. DOI: 10.1016/j.physme.2009.07.012.
  18. Gorkunov E.S., Povolotskaya A.M., Tueva E.A., Goruleva L.S., Zadvorkin S.M. Determination of the Magnetic Properties of Separate Zones of Welds and the Width of Welded Joints Based on Magnetic Measurements. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2011, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 577–586. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830911090038.
  19. Gorkunov E.S., Zadvorkin S.M., Emel’yanov I.G., Mitropol’skaya S.Yu. Variation of Magnetic Properties of Two-Layer Carbon-Steel Products under Tension. The Physics of Metals and Metallography, 2007, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 624–632. DOI: 10.1134/S0031918X07060129.
  20. Gorkunov E.S., Povolotskaya A.M., Kuleev V.G., Chistyakov V.K., Korobka O.B. Coercive Force of a Package of Steel Sheets with Diff erent Degrees of Magnetic Hardness. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2002, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 331–338. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020960918166.
  21. Gorkunov E.S., Emelyanov I.G., Zadvorkin S.M., Mitropolskaya S.Yu. A model of the stressstate state of a two-layer steel product under uniaxial tension. Metally, 2007, no. 1, pp. 78–82. (In Russian).
  22. Goldshtein M.I., Grachev S.V., Veksler Yu.G. Spetsialnye stali [Special Steels], М., MISIS Publ., 1999, 408 p. (In Russian).
  23. Filippov M.A., Litvinov V.S., Nemirovskiy Y.R. Stali s metastabilnym austenitom [Steels with metastable austenite]. М., Metallurgiya, 1988, 255 p.
  24. Gorkunov E.S., Zadvorkin S.M., Putilova E.A., Povolotskaya A.M., Goruleva L.S., Veretennikova I.A., Kamantsev I.S. The Application of Magnetic Structural Phase Analysis for the Diagnostics of the State of a 08X18H10T Steel–C 3 Steel Composite Material and Its Components That Were Subjected to Plastic Deformation. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2012, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 346–356. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830912060022.
  25. Gorkunov E.S., Zadvorkin S.M., Putilova E.A. Magnetic estimation of stresses applied to atwo-layer steel C(T)3-steel 08X18H10T composite material during elastoplastic deformation by uniaxial tension. Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2012, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 495–504. DOI: 10.1134/S1061830912080050.


Article reference

Gorkunov E. S. Magnetic Evaluation of the Structural and Phase Changes in Individual Layers of Multilayer Products // Diagnostics, Resource and Mechanics of materials and structures. - 2017. - Iss. 2. - P. 6-27. -
DOI: 10.17804/2410-9908.2017.2.006-027. -
URL: http://eng.dream-journal.org/issues/2017-2/2017-2_127.html
(accessed: 06/08/2023).  


impact factor
RSCI 0.42


MRDMS 2022
Google Scholar



Founder:  Institute of Engineering Science, Russian Academy of Sciences (Ural Branch)
Chief Editor:  S.V. Smirnov
When citing, it is obligatory that you refer to the Journal. Reproduction in electronic or other periodicals without permission of the Editorial Board is prohibited. The materials published in the Journal may be used only for non-profit purposes.
Home E-mail 0+

ISSN 2410-9908 Registration SMI Эл № ФС77-57355 dated March 24, 2014 © IMACH of RAS (UB) 2014-2023, www.imach.uran.ru